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  • Turkey : 10:12:02 Norway : 09:12:02
    Brussels : 09:12:02 UK : 08:12:02
    HomeContact Us
    Marine Education Division  |  CFF & European Partners  |  TUDEV Turkey  |  BTEC  |  NVQ/SVQ  |  International Projects

    A: EXISTING LEONARDO PROJECTS
    B: ACADEMIC RESEARCH PROGRAMMES
    C: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
    D: EUROPEAN EDUCATION ANDTRAINING PROJECTS
    E: SHORT COURSE PROGRAMMES IN AUTOMATED SYSTEMS IN SHIPPING (SURPASS)
     

    A. EXISTING LEONARDO PROJECT
    - EU Leonardo SOS (Safety on Sea) Project, TR/05/B/P/PP/178 001, 2005 - Article
    - EU Leonardo TRAIN 4Cs Mobility Project, TR/06/A/F/PL1-132, 2006 - Article
    - EU Leonardo E-GMDSS Project, SI/06/B/F/PP-176006, 2006 - Article
    - EU Leonardo MarTEL Project, UK/07/LLP-LdV/TOI-049, 2007 - Article
    - EU Leonardo TRAIN 4Cs – II Project, 2008-1-TR-LEO01-00681, 2008 - Article
    - EU Leonardo E-GMDSSVET Project, 142173-LLP-1-2008-1-SI - Article
    - EU Leonardo EBDIG Project, UK/09/LLP-LdV/TOI-163_262, 2009 - Article
    - EU Leonardo MarEng Plus Project (Maritime English Programmes) - Article
    - EU Leonardo M’Aider Project, 2009-1-NL1-LEO05-01624, 2009 - Article
    - EU Leonardo SURPASS Project 2009-1-TR1-LEO05-08652, 2009 - Article
    - EU Leonardo UniMET (insert Project no here) - Article
    - EU Leonardo MarTEL Project MarTEL Plus (insert Project no here) - Article
    - EU Leonardo CAPTAINS (insert Project no here) - Article
    - EU Leonardo Sail Ahead – (insert Project no here) - Article
    - MariFuture -
    Article

    1. Project Title: Leonardo Project 1 - Safety On Sea (SOS) – 2005-2007 (Budget: 327987 Euros)

    This proposed project will improve safety at sea through improved education and training. The Contracting partner has been running programmes of education and training for Deck Officers and Engineer Officers based on the IMO (International Maritime Organisation) syllabuses for some ten years. To improve the standard of its programmes, in 2003, the partner using the syllabuses developed by northern European countries revised its programmes and at the same time, applying cross-referencing techniques (EUROTECNET 37), also satisfied the requirements of a major international awarding body (Edexcel) for the award of a higher national diploma (HND). Graduates from these programmes can continue their education and enrol on the final year of appropriate degree programmes. This is important because many seafarers after a period at sea would like to settle down and work on shore, and the diploma would help them find good and permanent jobs. The development of the HNDs by the Contracting partner led to identification of deficiencies and ambiguities which have proven to have led to many safety lapses at sea. The comparison of the HNDs in Turkey and those in England and SCOTLAND has clearly indicated several differences in content and method of applications. Through discussions and using cross-referencing methods an attempt has been made to bring the two sets of the HND programmes together. In doing so, with no disrespect to organisations involved with validation and accreditation of these programmes, it has been realised that there are serious differences in standards being applied, and even in the pathways chosen to satisfy the same awarding or even the same licensing body. Many examples of these differences and in some cases deficiencies have been highlighted in the body of this proposal.

    The project will take advantage of the outcome of several European education and training including Leonardo pilot projects (HIICOSS I, 1997; SAS, 1998; NORAY, 1999; ORION, 2001; CIVILPRONAVY, 2001; FISHTRAIN, 2001; SECURETAS MARE, 2002; HIICOSS II, 2002; NETOSKAR, 2003;) and the results of a number of research and development programmes (METNET, METHAR) and will exploit the outcome of the EU funded METNET.

    The proposed project also addresses compatibility of the training programmes in partner countries. Team work would identify areas of good practice and areas of concern. A great deal of work has been planned to harmonise the proposed programmes so that cadets from one partner country can transfer, at different exit points, to another partner country. Furthermore, there are specific training for trainers to acquire recognised and accredited vocational qualifications as assessors and verifiers. The cadets will also undergo vocational training as well as their academic study (HND) approved by all relevant bodies viz., awarding (Edexcel/partner universities/colleges, accrediting (IMarEST – Institute of Marine, Engineering, Science and Technology and so forth) and national training boards as well as the licensing authorities.

    Partners :
    TUDEV (Institute of Maritime Studies)
    CFF (Centre for Factories of the Future)
    GCNS (Glasgow College of Nautical Studies)
    STC (South Tyneside College)
    TUC (Tromsö University College)

    Other Organisations supporting the Partnership – Silent Partners
    Edexcel
    • To provide support and guidance to obtain approvals for necessary vocational qualifications for students and staff and help in harmonising the qualifications including underpinning knowledge/units and training record books for:

    Navigation :
    Officer of Watch
    Chief Mate
    Captain / Master

    Marine Engineering
    Engineer Officer of Watch
    Chief Engineer

    IMarEST
    • To review the new programmes and support their accreditation.

    MNTB
    • To review the existing and proposed programmes and support the partnership in ensuring all requirements are fully met for Officer Of Watch, Chief Mate and Captain, particularly streamlining training handbooks for these qualifications.
    British Council (Turkey)
    • They have supported TUDEV offering advice as to how the Centre could achieve its main objectives. It is hoped that the British Council would help to bring Turkey closer to EU in adopting world-class standards for the three main identified qualifications.
    Universities of Northumbria, Strathclyde University and De Montfort
    • The first two universities have already validated/accredited final year degree programmes at the two UK partner colleges and are willing to support new pathway programmes leading to final year degree(s) options for Deck Officer and Engineer Officers. De Montfort has also agreed to accept the graduates from HNDs onto its appropriate final year BSc programmes.


    2. Leonardo project 2 : 2006-2008
    Project Title:
    TRAIN merchant navy C adets for C ertificate of C ompeten C y (TRAIN 4 Cs) (Budget: 58000 Euros)

    This proposed project will improve safety at sea through a mobility programme involving the transfer of 16 cadets from TUDEV in Turkey to Glasgow College of Nautical Studies (GCNS) in Scotland, on a pilot basis. The period of placement is for 14 weeks, commencing 14th of November 2006 10 19th February 2007. Currently, the authorities in Scotland (and other countries in the EU) do not accept several ancillary (safety) courses taken by the cadets in Turkey as they would wish to be assured that the standard of education and training in Turkey is the same as those in Scotland. Scotland has supported Turkey to revise its merchant navy officer programmes and train its staff through an existing Leonardo Pilot programme (Safety On Sea - SOS). GCNS has also assisted TUDEV to plan, in details (Appendixes 1-3), the arrangements for making this proposal a workable programme of work (Appendix 4). The intention is to develop other proposals to transfer cadets within the partnership and extend the partnership in the near future.

    NB: The mobility activities and the financial tables are summarised in Appendixes 6-9.
    Note that the programme for cadets’ transfer to Scotland may now be delayed until February/March 07. The delay would allow the cadets to take their GASM examinations in February 2007 and their GOC either in November 2006 or March 2007. Discussions are on-going with MCA and Scotland about this intended delay which is has primarily come about to ensure that there is no objections by the Turkish authorities in MCA issuing Certificates of Competency (CoC) before the cadets each has obtained his Turkish certificate/license. MCA may also be prepared to issue a Certificate of equivalent Competency (CeC)to Turkish cadets at TUDEV who undergo the HND/NVQ/SVQ programme of education and Training provided they pass their GASM examination in Turkey. The CEC could then be transformed into a CoC. The arrangements with MCA are being agreed.

    Partners :
    TUDEV (Institute of Maritime Studies)
    CFF (Centre for Factories of the Future)
    GCNS (Glasgow College of Nautical Studies)


    3. Leonardo project 3 : 2006-2008
    Project Title: E-GDMSS (Budget: 380000 Euros)


    The proposed project focuses on provision of vocational education and continuing vocational training for Short Range Certificate (SRC) which is mandatory for seafarers operating vessels of up to 300 GRT within 30 Nm from coast. The target group are all mariners (there are more than 2 million of them in EU alone) that are either starting their nautical training or have to refresh their knowledge and skills at least once a year (so seafarers ranging from amateurs to professionals). The knowledge required for the SRC can be obtained through either self-training, nautical education institutions or internal training conducted at larger marine companies. To obtain the SRC award a candidate must be able to competently operate four different GMDSS communication devices (VHF DSC, Navtex, EPIRB and SART). These devices are only used for emergencies at sea which occur rarely. Therefore, the knowledge of operation of these devices tends to fade over time and should be regularly refreshed to ensure safety of crew, passengers and freight (even though this is not a legal requirement).

    Partners :
    Slovenia: Spinaker si
    Turkey: TUDEV – Institute of Maritime Studies
    England: CFF (Centre for Factories of the Future)
    Spain: Facultad de ciencias nauticas
    Spain: Cetemar
    Italy: C.S.S., SE.MA2
    Netherlands: Maritime Institute Willem Barentsz
    Poland: Maritime University of Szczecin
    Finland: Institute of Maritime Studies


    B. ACADEMIC RESEARCH
    MPhils/PhDs in collaborations with De Montfort University, UK and Centre for Factories of the Future, UK

    4. Project title: Activity Based Costing for Small and Medium sized Maritime Enterprises in Turkey
    Project aims: 1. To investigate the needs for costing systems for SMEs in the maritime sector in Turkey.
    2. To design, develop and test a generic costing system which is capable of associating costs and margins with products, processes and customers.

    5. Project Title: Sustaining competitive advantage through co-operative decision making

    1. To study competitive advantage and how it can be sustained through co-operative decision making processes / case studies of several business (MPhil)
    2. To look into the reasons why family businesses are not competitive and why they go out of business after a few generations.
    3. To develop a checklist as a basis for constructing a model for family businesses in shipping industry, particular in Turkey with a view to help them to remain competitive for generations to come.


    6. Project Title: An Investigation into the design, manufacturing and management processes considering modern lean and total quality principles to improve demand and capacity forecasting for merchant navy vessels.

    Project Aim:
    The initial aim of the investigation was how maritime small and medium manufacturing enterprises manage the design and manufacturing processes in order to develop an improved manufacturing management system using modern lean and total quality principles that is capable of reacting responsively to changes in the competitive global market place.

    NB: There are three other Research projects currently being supervised by the partnership.
    These are:

    • Quality in Higher Education – Oxford Brookes University
    • Marketing Mix – Being discussed with Coventry University
    • Clean Diesel – Under discussions with Coventry University



    C. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
    7. A Proposal for Consideration under Seventh Framework: 2007-2011/13

    Project Title:
    Application of Neural and Expert Systems in Capacity Requirement and Ship Building (Budget: 4 Million Euros)

    Water transportation is rapidly growing and is becoming the safest form of transportation for transfer of goods and services. The competition has become more severe particularly because of the emergence of China and India as major forces on the water transportation scene. An opportunity has come about to use novel tools to predict capacity requirement and apply neural and expert systems to build ships at a minimised cost. An activity based costing system would be adapted and ship construction process would consider maintenance requirements as well as the dismantling arrangements. Safety issues would be incorporated in the design phase. The project would involve importing knowledge, cognitive and learning systems, simulation and visualisation techniques as well as technology enhanced learning, adaptive and active learning. Dismantling would be a corner stone of the intended areas for particular attention and recycling of dismantled components would be a priority area in the knowledge solicitation of the intended expert system.

    Partners:
    In collaborations with De Montfort University, Centre for Factories of the Future and over 10 other EU based organisations.


    8. A Proposal for Consideration under a national research programme: 2007-2010

    Project Title:
    Improving estimating and forecasting model development processes (Budget: 1.2 Million Euros) – Approved on 15th October.

    The proposed project is intended to assist those business organisations who make frequent use of quantitative and/or qualitative models for making a variety of business decisions. It will achieve this aim by automating the data identification, collection and analysis tasks involved in the modelling process hence considerably reducing the high levels of cost, expertise and time resources required. A generic modelling process will be developed applicable to a wide range of strategic & tactical decision areas, including:

    • Decisions on pricing, design and marketing
    • Forecasting future demand for products and services
    • Estimating the costs of new products and processes
    • Predicting future capacity and inventory requirements
    • Identifying and selecting suppliers
    • Designing a new component which requires access to historical data on other components and materials

    As well as the economic business advantages, regulatory compliance legislation is increasingly placing greater imperatives on having good, easy to use and transparent data retrieval and analysis processes which the proposed project work is intended to address.

    Partners:
    De Montford University, CFF, Preactor, Unipart, Sustainable Energy.

    D. EUROPEAN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

    9. A Proposal for Consideration under the Leonardo programme: 2007-09
    Project Title:
    Professional, Industrial, Competence and sKills – UPdating (PICK-UP) (Budget: 400000 Euros)

    This is a pilot project to update the knowledge, skills and understanding of those working in the water transportation sector. The proposal responds to the needs of the sector for training of employees and employers, paying particular attention to the training and re-training needs of smaller companies and self-employed. The project is divided into three parts. In part one, a classification system will be developed grouping various short course programmes under specific headings, viz., safety, security, specialised, legal, management and so forth. Through cross-referencing techniques, developed as part of an earlier European Union (EU) funded project (Eurotecnet and Force), a matrix table will be produced identifying where these courses are delivered within the partner countries and later the courses offered in the surrounding countries would be added to the database, including information such as fees, frequency of delivery, location and other relevant details. Through a harmonisation plan, the titles and content of these courses will be examined and a comprehensive set of training programmes will be developed. Learning materials will be gathered together and additional materials developed. Other resources (equipment, simulators, software, charts, manuals, etc) will be incorporated and shared among the partner countries and will be made available to other European Union member states as part of the intended valorisation.

    The second part of the project concerns sharing of resources and value added activities manifested in jointly planned and/or joint delivery of these courses, providing a golden opportunity for training the trainers, in an efficient and effective manner. The third part relates to the development of specific training and re-training courses on newly emerging requirements, particularly relating to national and international conventions and security requirements, specifically those introduced after 9/11, for instance, requirements of USA coastguards or specific ports relating to security. The project provides an opportunity for partners to recognize each others’ certificates. This is an important objective of the project.

    To ensure these developments are successful, it is proposed to establish a network of partners including the relevant authorities to ensure these programmes received the support needed. The work will commence with the review of an existing needs analysis report and identification of urgent short courses which will incorporate the latest requirements of bodies such as the International Maritime Organisation (IMO). There will be a training programme with support from partners for the trainers and their certification in line with European vocational qualifications for trainers/assessors and those who will be involved with internal and external examinations. It is agreed that a serious attention will be paid to provision of pathways, through ‘integrated short course programme’, to technician qualifications and also through existing routes to higher qualifications. The reason for this is the anticipated shortages of qualified seafarers in the near future (Ziarati, 2005).

    Partners :
    CFF (Centre for Factories of the Future)
    GCNS (Glasgow College of Nautical Studies)
    Blackpool and Fylde College
    TUC (Tromsö University College)
    FIMS(Finland Institute of Maritime Studies)
    Others are being considered.


    10. A Proposal for Consideration under the Leonardo programme: 2007-2009 – Procedure B or C

    Project Title:
    HELping english L anguage develOpment in Shipping and mA ritime Industries Leading t O impRoved safety (HELLO SAILOR)(Budget: 370000 Euros)

    This is a Language Competency project to improve the Maritime English language skills of,
    • young people aged 14-18 years old wishing to enter the Merchant Navy as Lycee/lise cadets,
    • those embarking on a career as Merchant Navy Officers and ratings, and
    • those working on board vessels and at ports with a view to update their knowledge, skills and understanding of Maritime English.
    The project outcome will incorporate the development of a series of English (foundation and maritime) language training modules at lycee/lise level at one of the partner centres and a similar, but one-year programme at another maritime centre involved with the education and training of merchant navy officers including all ranks. For the latter, the English tuition would concentrate on three levels of proficiency: Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced simultaneously. All levels would concentrate on active skills i.e. Speaking, Comprehension and Writing. The content would be based on maritime terminology. For the former, in the first two years the focus would be on all skills with more emphasis of grammar. The next two years would concentrate on the application of maritime English.
    All courses would lead to vocational qualification recognised internationally. The trainees would also become aware of the latest changes to rules and regulations in the maritime industry commensurate with their ranking.
    The project was developed by several industrial and education/training organisations in Turkey, the UK and Norway. The project manager at the co-ordinating (technical) organisation has substantial experience of instigating and implementing EU/European funded projects. Representatives of Contracting and Coordinating organisations have already visited all partners and had at least on two occasions met the other partners.

    Partners : 
    CFF (Centre for Factories of the Future)
    GCNS (Glasgow College of Nautical Studies)
    Blackpool and Fylde College
    TUC (Tromsö University College)
    FIMS(Finland Institute of Maritime Studies)
    Others are being consi
    dered.
     

    E. EUROPEAN EDUCATION AND TRAINING

    Project Title:
    Short Course Programmes in Automated Systems in Shipping (SURPASS)

    Summary
     

    The main Problem (s) - The modern ships particularly container and fuel carrying vessels are becoming increasingly automated.  The automation has brought with it two problems, one concerning the inadequacy of existing seafarers’ education and training viz., that if any aspects of automation fails the crew often are not trained to use alternative systems and hence respond to it effectively (IMO MSC 82, 2006; Ziarati, 2006).  The second problem has arisen from the review of the arguments from recent IMO Maritime Safety Committee (reports MSC 82/15/2 and MSC 82/15/3, 2006) namely that the human operators rarely understand all the characteristics of automatic systems and these systems’ weaknesses and limitations which have now been found to be the main causes of accidents.  The body of the proposal refers to several serious and recent accidents at sea due to automation failure.  These reports concluded that there is a need to improve the content of all maritime training and that the knowledge, skills and understanding of automation should be included in the basic training of all Chapters of the STCW Code of practice.

    The main aim is to transfer the innovation already developed in the design, delivery and assessment of short courses in order to fill the gap created as the result of emergence and application of the automated systems in the education and training of seafarers by the provision of a training course enabling them to have a full understanding of automated systems and these systems’ weaknesses and limitations

    The partnership is composed of major education and training centre in several EU countries supported by their awarding, accrediting and/or certificating authorities.  The proposal instigator was the representative of IMarEST at recent IMO MSC (2006) and at the same time a member of a national delegation at the event.  Three of the partners are involved in Leonardo projects concerning e-learning (E-GDMSS, 2006) and three are involved with another Leonardo project (SOS, 2005) concerned with the development and implementation of an integrated programme of education and training for merchant navy officers.  The coordinating organization has been involved with EU funded projects, many concerning automation, for many years.  The contracting organisation is also involved with an emerging FP 7 proposal (SPIRIT) concerning the development of an interactive decision support system for use in situations arising in emergencies.  Several other countries would like to support the project.  The partners have collectively almost a complete range of bridge and engine simulators including fully integrated bridge-propulsion-power transmission with full mission capability with the high level of physical fidelity     and different levels of severity.  One of the partners is involved in the development of the next generation of simulators for marine diesel engines.

    The main tangible outcome is a innovative course in automation with 8 modules, each concerning a particular level of depth in knowledge, skills and understating, for a given level of seniority and concerning a given job function.  The second outcome is expected to be the intended adaptation of an e-leaning platform with assessment facilities currently under development in E-GMDSS (2006) or use of an earlier platform developed in a previous EU funded project by one of the partners (Ziarati, 2002).  The team building module may replace the existing non-standard, but on high demand courses such as Bridge Resource Management and Ship Handling.  Since the intention is to adapt e-learning and e-assessment both as training and learning methodologies as well as a self-learning and self-assessment tools, the project products would be able to target a wider audience particularly for active seafarers being on board vessels for long periods.

    The main intangible outcome is the course would provide an opportunity for many rating and officers with no or little knowledge of automation to acquire the necessary expertise and seek employment on board vessels with automated systems.  The knowledge needed for example by Engineers and Deck officer on board a vessel has to match the complexity of the automated system and other related equipment they operate.  To ensure this will be the case the course is designed to be a bolt-on programme and capable of being up-dated.  There has been a shift from component based training to system-based training and the focus is on team operation viz., bringing the bridge team to work effectively as a team and in turn making sure that the Engine personnel and Deck crew work in harmony particularly in an emergency situation.  The latter consideration is as important today and ever.  The e-learning and e-assessment tools and internet software interfaces already available will be adapted for application in delivery of the intended course/modules would be able to be applied in the delivery of other units of training and as self-learning/assessment tool.
    Impact
    will be substantial as this project responds to an internationally acknowledged problem which the partnership is confident of resolving and since the social partners including employers and ship owners are involved in the proposed project the impact is expected to include widespread use of the course in partner and other EU countries.

    Rationale

    A paper (Ziarati, 2006) and report to IMO (MCA, 2006) clearly identify a major source of accidents particularly in the future to be the problems with application of automated systems and failures in any aspect of automation.  There are two related issues/needs which need to be addressed.  One can be highlighted, for example, by a recent report by the Maritime Accident Investigation Branch in the UK (MAIB) concerning the details of the heavy contact made by Savannah Express (2005) with a linkspan at Southampton docks, after the ship lost astern engine power.  The report stated that the engineers on board were experienced and held appropriate STCW certificates but they were unable to correctly diagnose the reason for the engine failure.  Lack of adequate training in how to operate and trouble-shoot the automated engine was a significant contributory factor in the accident.  What was significant was that STCW training standards for Engineers have not been updated to account for working with such new engines.  The second issue can be highlighted by an in MER (addressing automation, 2007) stating that it is not impossible to bring presently serving seagoing engineers to the standards needed if a course could be devised to include synchro- and cyclo- converters, harmonics, etc. as an add-on to the existing IMO syllabuses.  Ziarati (2006) reports on the need to include instrumentation and control systems including hydraulics and pneumatics in the syllabuses of the programmes for the Engineer and Deck officers.  Under STCW there is no specific training requirement for electrical engineering officers on board vessels, and therefore no internationally or European agreed standard by which shipping companies can effectively assess their knowledge.

    The proposed course contains some 8 modules in various aspects of automation for: 1) Ratings and for Cadet Officers on automation components, 2) Deck Cadet Officer on automated navigation systems at support and operational levels, 3) Engineering Cadet Officers on automated propulsion systems at support and operational levels, 4) Chief Mates, on integrated navigation on operation and management levels, 5) Second Engineers on automated propulsion and power transmission systems, 6) for Chief Engineers on fully integrated and computer controlled propulsion system, 7) Masters/Captains on fully integrated Bridge-propulsion-power transmission system and 8) on team operation, Deck-Engineers interaction and combined scenarios.   The course therefore is unique as it attempts to fill a gap in lieu of lack of appropriate standards and hence coherent training content to address a serious cause of accidents and incidents.  It is expected that the course and its widespread adaptation will save many lives and injuries as well reducing financial losses making companies in the sector to become more competitive.  The proposed project is in line with a European strategy as stated in UNISCE’s seven priorities and directly supports the work of EU namely, i) Competitiveness, ii) safety, iii) higher academic learning, iv) lifelong learning, v) collaboration of stakeholders vi)employment/mobility, and vii) adaptation to needs and conditions.  From a European perspective, safety at work constitutes one of the EU’s most important social policies.  The Lisbon European council stressed that Europe was going through a transition to a knowledge based economy, marked by profound changes affecting society, employment and safety at work.  European Commission’s recent adaptation of “investment in people” and Commission’s “investment in quality” are two policies that the proposed project is supporting.  The EU strategy relating to both policies is based on consolidating a culture of risk prevention, and ‘on right first time’ philosophy, as well as on combining a variety of tools, with training and awareness, being the most important ones.  Although this strategy has been adopted from the national legislation of member states, a review of the available statistics clearly indicates that the preventive approach set out in Community directives has neither been fully understood and/or taken on board by various players, nor applied effectively (NORAY, 1999). 
    There has been research in finding out how automation problems are resolved in industries such as aviation and nuclear.  It was learnt that shipping staff need to be capable of transferring from automatic to manual; for instance, when an auto-pilot in an aircraft fails the Pilot is capable of switching to manual and land the aircraft safely.  This is exactly what this proposed course will offer; operating and/or managing automated systems as well as of skills in transferring to manual and sailing the ship safely.

    Training on automation and inserting faults and learning how to rectify them cannot be done on a sea going vessel.  The most appropriate method is to use simulators as is the case in the aviation industry.  The proposed course, with the help of the partners, will include real life scenarios using a range of simulators.

    Aims
    The main aim, as stated above, is to fill the gap created as the result of emergence and application of the automated systems in the education and training of seafarers by provision of a training course enabling them to have a full understanding of automated systems, and these systems’ weaknesses and limitations.  It is for this reason that this project primarily is in line with Objective 1b of the Call. To achieve this aim it is necessary to identify the training needs and develop or adapt methods and methodologies both for content development as well as for the delivery of the modules within the course.  This aim will only be achieved if a well planned literature review of, on the one hand the automated system and components, and on the other hand, the accidents and incidents, such as that by Savannah Express (2005) or the very recent sinking of Glorious (2007) in the Bosphorous, are carefully and meticulously carried out.  The former accident was due to engine failure and the latter due to navigation (steering, rudder) failure.  Emergencies at sea are rare.  However, when they do appear they could cause loss of life and material damage, therefore seafarers not only have to learn how to operate automation systems but should regularly be refreshed to ensure the safety of the crew, passengers (if any) and what the carry.  Due to this rare but at times resulting with severe outcomes, seafarers will need to remember also how to react to dangerous and emergency situations and able to react and handle the situation.

     The second aim is to make this course also available to industry to ensure companies in the sector, particularly ship operators and ship builders are aware of the support these systems require and operational features as well as their management.  It is in this respect that the proposal also addresses Objective 1a of the Call.  This aim is expected to make the companies more competitive and reduce loss of life and personal injuries as well as substantially reduce the cost of accidents and incidents due to automation systems and their failures.
    The course can also be used by ship crews who are working on board these vessels and pilots at ports, as an up-dating programme of personnel or self development.    Furthermore, many employees and individuals will be able to enhance their skills and competence and hence become more employable and participate in the European labour market (Objective 1a).
    The skills and competence again could help individuals to become more mobile and seek better paid jobs or work in other flag states.  This aim is expected to make a contribution to Objective 1c of the Call.
    The design of the course will take into consideration specific features such as user friendliness and delivery techniques to ensure that smaller companies could benefit from the course or any constituent part of it; this would contribute to improvements in quality and innovation in vocational education and training system and practices (Priority 1).  Since this proposal intends to train trainers, the project makes some contributions to Priority 2.

     The third aim is to adapt e-learning and e-assessment systems and use Internet as a means of communication within the target groups as well as for training material delivery and its assessment. Such intentions address Priority 3, the transfer of innovation concerning e-learning. There will be two types of assessment. One as part of the learning strategy so that self-assessment and trainee-centre-learning and inquiry methods could be used to enhance learning; and the second is assessment which is designed to measure performance evaluation and for progression purposes.

    Active Partners

    TUDEV-Institute of Maritime Studies (TUDEV), TR
    Satakunta University (SUAS), FI
    Glasgwo college of Nautical Studies (GCNS), Scotalnd
    Tromsø University College (TUC), NO
    Maritime University of Szczecin (MUS), PL
    Spinaker (SPIN), SL

    Centre for Factories of the Future (C4FF), UK

    Plymouth University (PLY), UK

     

    Project: Maritime Tests of English Language (MarTEL)

    Summary

    The problem is that there are no international or European standards for Maritime English.  This project intends to establish a set of standards by transfer of innovation from existing English language standards and maritime English model courses such as International Maritime Organisation’s (IMO) SMCP (Standard Maritime Communication Phrases, 2001). Review of the arguments from the recent IMO meetings (IMO MSC, 2006) considering MSC 82/15/2 and MSC 82/15/3 had identified that ‘there is a compelling need to promote a high level of working maritime English language skills’.  Several EU member states have invited STW sub-committee to consider how the requirements in the STCW-Code can be strengthened in this connection.  It was noted that deficiencies in maritime English causes accidents and therefore needs to be seriously taught in the basic and the main training of all Chapters of the STCW Code of practice.  It is interesting to note that both of the above issues were also the findings of an IMarEST paper rand report and paper (Ziarati, 2006; Ziarati, 2007).  This Project therefore is a maritime language competency assessment project for the language certification of the following target groups: i) young people aged 17/18 years old wishing to enter the Merchant Navy as ratings, ii) those embarking on a career as Merchant Navy officers, iii) those intending to hold senior posts as a Chief Mate/Master/Captain and as a Second/Chief Engineers, and iv) those who are working at ports with different degree of seniority including pilots.

    The main aim is to develop a series of Maritime English language standards incorporating also the IMO’s SMCP, at three different standards: i) Foundation – Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced, ii) Officer – Deck and Engineering, and  iii) Senior Officers – Deck and Engineering, also senior officers at port and pilots.  The tests will be piloted in at least two partner countries (Turkey and the UK). The other partner countries with experience in developing and testing of maritime English will be encouraged to pilot the tests in their own institutions.

    The partnership
    is composed of major education and training centres in seven EU member states supported by their awarding, accrediting and certification authorities.  The proposal instigator was the representative of IMarEST at recent IMO MSC (2006) and at the same time a member of a Turkish national delegation at the event.  Three of the partners are involved in Leonardo proposed projects concerning e-learning (E-GMDSS) and three are involved in another Leonardo project (SOS, 2005) concerning the development and implementation of an integrated programme of education and training for merchant navy cadets and officers.  The project was developed jointly with several industrial and commercial organisations in seven partner countries.  There are eight active and many silent partners and two are major awarding and validating bodies.  The contracting organisation and the co-ordinating (technical) organisation have substantial experience of instigating and implementing EU funded projects. 

    The main tangible outcomes are - i) The Foundation standards which include tests at three levels of proficiency: Elementary, Intermediate and Advanced.  All levels will include active skills i.e. Speaking, Comprehension and Writing.  The content would be based on active learning and on maritime terminology and usage with less emphasis on grammar.  The Foundation test at advanced level will benchmark the well-known English qualification standards TOEFL 500 and IALTS 5.5 in terms of testing methods rather than their contents, ii) The Officer standards will be based on TOEFL 550 and IALTS 6.0 standards but content will be primarily based on Navigation English and Marine Engineering English.  These tests will focus on all skills but with less emphasis on grammar, iii) The senior officers standards will be equivalent to TOEFL 600 or IALTS 6.6.  For the senior officers in charge of vessels over 3000 GRT, the standard will include a section on language requirements for these vessels and the term Unlimited will be added to the end of the qualification designation.   All standards for Officer and Senior Officer Levels will have different weights on different skills and different proficiency requirements at different ranks and duties.  For example, a Chief Engineer should be competent on comprehension (especially reading) and writing but a more moderate level of speaking may be tolerated.  The success would lead to vocational qualifications in Maritime English and usage which is expected to be recognised Europe-wide. 

    The main intangible outcome
    is that, the standards and their associated study units, will provide an opportunity for many companies particularly smaller ones to become involved particularly taking advantage of learning materials and the intended e-learning and e-assessment and facilities for self-learning and self-assessment.  Impact is expected to be substantial as the project responds to a European and international acknowledgment of the problem which this project intends to address at source and through industrial lifelong learning.  There are many organisations including awarding, accrediting and licensing bodies that are interested in the project.

     

    Rationale
    Shipping is perhaps the most international of the entire world’s great industries and some of the most dangerous.  Safety of life at sea, the marine environment and over 80% of the world’s trade depends on the professionalism and competence of seafarers.  It has been reported that the over 80% of accident and incidents are due to human error According to IMO (2005), 80% of accidents at sea are caused by human error.  One of main causes of accidents and incidents are due to poor standards of maritime English. The language of the sea is Maritime English and many ships, and to a lesser extent, ports, are manned by multinational crews.  Hence, good communication in Maritime English is essential for creation and maintenance of effective working environments and safety of the crew, and generally safety at sea and at ports.  There are many reports and papers (MCA –MSC 82/15/02 and MSC 82/15/03, Ziarati, 2006) identifying poor communication as one of the most significant factors in accidents at sea and at ports.  There is only one Leonardo project viz., English for Dockworkers (E/02/B/F/LA_115852, 2002), which has tried to address the communication problems in dockyards through the development of training materials for self-learning in English language.  A list of the all the Leonardo projects in maritime fields is presented in the reference section, as the end of the proposal. However, there is no Leonardo project on establishing standards for Maritime personnel working in the water transportation sector.

     The importance of skills in English Language competency was highlighted at the recent IMO Maritime Safety Committee (IMO MSC 82, 2006).  Papers presented by the Turkish and UK delegates clearly stated that language competency is a problem.  The papers led to discussions at the Human Element Working Group (HEWG) when it was reported that many seafarers have problems in expressing themselves in English and in using maritime terminologies.  It was agreed that STCW Convention had to be revised in this connection and IMO’s maritime English course model’s (based on SMCP) minimum requirements is no longer acceptable.  The inadequacy of Maritime English standards has been a major contributory factor in causes of accidents, some involving loss of life, large numbers of injuries and extensive financial loss (Deniz Ticarti, 2006; MAIB, 2006).

    This proposal is in line with Loginovsky (2002) which reports on the significance of English as the working language of the international shipping industry and that the overall performance and safety of the international fleet depends on the skill to apply it correctly.  He states that the ability of a non-native speaker to have a good command in Maritime English is very much influenced by the ability to think in it in the frame work of the maritime profession.   He concludes that to make the teaching and learning processes more effective, it is required to power up the thought activity of a seafarer using English.  This proposal has taken note of the recent papers at the IMO MSC event (2006) and recommendations of several international papers (Ziarati, 2006; Loginovsky, 2002) concerning lack of standards or and appropriate underpinning knowledge and skill for maritime English.

    There are severe shortages of personnel with sea going experience (Ziarati, 2003; Pourzanjani et al, 2002, Schroder et al, 2004).  This is expected to get worse (IER, 2005 report sponsored by ISF and BIMCO).  The shortage ranges from some 30000 (IER, 2003) seafarers to over 100000 (Urkmez, 2005).  This is anticipated to lead to an overlook of deficiency in competence by shipping companies desperately seeking seafarers to man their vessels. 

    Aims

    This proposal aims to address major problems relating to competency in maritime English for the well-being of seafarers and those working in the shipping and maritime industries including ports.  The problem is addressed at its very roots, that is, helping to improve the language competency of those wishing to embark on a career in the Merchant Navy as rating and officers in partner countries at three key stages: 17/18 years old, 21/22 years old and 23+ through an integrated and interrelated standardised assessment system catering for all classes of seafarer as outlined in the project summary..  The project is concerned with the establishment of standards of Maritime English for all classes of seafarers and for those working at ports.  The standards are expected to be recognised by international professional bodies and the licensing authorities.  To ensure these developments are implemented effectively it is proposed:

    • to develop supporting training programmes for the intended standards by formation of pilot groups initially in one of the partner countries and then re-run them and/or validate them in other partner countries,
    • to establish a network of transnational partners to support the development of the project, to surpass excel the minimum of standard of maritime English set by IMO,
    • to design a programme for the trainers and assessors development, and their certification, for application of the intended standards and subsequent tests, as well as for the internal assessment and verification process, in line with European vocational qualifications for Assessors and Verifiers,
    • to facilitate secondment of trainers and assessors to partners’ establishments on short assignments in order to familiarise the trainers and assessors with the necessary skills and good practice,
    • to form a committee to monitor the progress and make the necessary changes when required, applying a quality manual instigated in the course of developing this proposal, and
    • to develop bridges for maritime personnel, through these standarts so that they can take advantage of other programmes, some leading to higher vocational qualifications.

    All tests for officer and senior officer levels will have weight on different skills.  The officers are expected to reach certain levels of proficiency and competency at given ranks/duties by their companies or potential employers.

    Active Partners

    Centre for Factories of the Future (C4FF), UK
    TUDEV-Institute of Maritime Studies (TUDEV), TR
    Satakunta University (SUAS), FI
    Tromsø University College (TUC), NO
    Maritime University of Szczecin (MUS), PL
    Spinaker (SPIN), SL

    MarEdu, UK


    last updated 06-23 2011

     


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